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Spring Boot, Spring-Security – BcrypPasswordEncoder in new component-based security configuration

I am trying to use the new Component-Based (Without WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter) configuration and setted up my Security Configuration as follow:

SecurityConfiguration.java file

package com.tito.userservice.security;

import com.tito.userservice.filter.CustomAuthenticationFilter;
import lombok.RequiredArgsConstructor;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;


import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.http.SessionCreationPolicy;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.bcrypt.BCryptPasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.web.SecurityFilterChain;


@Configuration @EnableWebSecurity @RequiredArgsConstructor
public class SecurityConfiguration {

    private final UserDetailsService userDetailsService;
    private final BCryptPasswordEncoder bCryptPasswordEncoder;
    private final AuthenticationManagerBuilder authManagerBuilder;


    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder encoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }


    //----------------HTTP SECURITY CONFIG-------------------------------------
    @Bean
    public SecurityFilterChain filterChain(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.csrf().disable();
        http.sessionManagement().sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS);
        http
                .authorizeRequests().anyRequest().permitAll();
                

        http.addFilter(new CustomAuthenticationFilter(authManagerBuilder.getOrBuild()));

        return http.build();
    }

    //----------------HTTP SECURITY CONFIG-------------------------------------



}

but when I run the application and try to log a user the following error appears even though I have the BCryptPasswordEncoder as a bean in my SecurityConfiguration:

Error Stack Trace*

2022-08-16 21:02:04.220 ERROR 13112 --- [nio-8080-exec-1] o.a.c.c.C.[.[.[/].[dispatcherServlet]    : Servlet.service() for servlet [dispatcherServlet] in context with path [] threw exception

java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: There is no PasswordEncoder mapped for the id "null"
        at org.springframework.security.crypto.password.DelegatingPasswordEncoder$UnmappedIdPasswordEncoder.matches(DelegatingPasswordEncoder.java:289) ~[spring-security-crypto-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.crypto.password.DelegatingPasswordEncoder.matches(DelegatingPasswordEncoder.java:237) ~[spring-security-crypto-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.authentication.dao.DaoAuthenticationProvider.additionalAuthenticationChecks(DaoAuthenticationProvider.java:76) ~[spring-security-core-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.authentication.dao.AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.authenticate(AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.java:147) ~[spring-security-core-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.authentication.ProviderManager.authenticate(ProviderManager.java:182) ~[spring-security-core-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at com.tito.userservice.filter.CustomAuthenticationFilter.attemptAuthentication(CustomAuthenticationFilter.java:43) ~[classes/:na]
        at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.doFilter(AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.java:227) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.doFilter(AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter.java:217) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:103) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:89) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.header.HeaderWriterFilter.doHeadersAfter(HeaderWriterFilter.java:90) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.header.HeaderWriterFilter.doFilterInternal(HeaderWriterFilter.java:75) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:112) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:82) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.context.request.async.WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.doFilterInternal(WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.java:55) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.session.DisableEncodeUrlFilter.doFilterInternal(DisableEncodeUrlFilter.java:42) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:336) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilterInternal(FilterChainProxy.java:211) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:183) ~[spring-security-web-5.7.2.jar:5.7.2]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:354) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:267) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.RequestContextFilter.doFilterInternal(RequestContextFilter.java:100) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.FormContentFilter.doFilterInternal(FormContentFilter.java:93) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:201) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:117) ~[spring-web-5.3.22.jar:5.3.22]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:197) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:97) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:541) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:135) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:92) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:78) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:360) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service(Http11Processor.java:399) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProcessorLight.process(AbstractProcessorLight.java:65) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$ConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:890) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1789) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SocketProcessorBase.run(SocketProcessorBase.java:49) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1191) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:659) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) ~[tomcat-embed-core-9.0.65.jar:9.0.65]
        at java.base/java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:833) ~[na:na]

Which is the correct way to set up the PasswordEncoder in the new component-configuration?

Edit: adding login logic

AppUserService interface

package com.tito.userservice.services;

import com.tito.userservice.domain.AppUser;
import com.tito.userservice.domain.Role;

import java.util.List;

public interface AppUserService {
    AppUser saveUser(AppUser user);
    Role saveRole(Role role);

    void addRoleToUser(String username, String roleName);

    AppUser getUser(String username);
    List<AppUser>getUsers();

}

and the AppUserServiceImplementation:

package com.tito.userservice.services;

import com.tito.userservice.domain.AppUser;
import com.tito.userservice.domain.Role;
import com.tito.userservice.repo.AppUserRepo;
import com.tito.userservice.repo.RoleRepo;
import lombok.RequiredArgsConstructor;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.security.core.authority.SimpleGrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UsernameNotFoundException;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import javax.transaction.Transactional;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;

@Service @RequiredArgsConstructor @Transactional @Slf4j
public class AppUserServiceImpl implements AppUserService, UserDetailsService {

    private final AppUserRepo appUserRepo;
    private final RoleRepo roleRepo;

    private final PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder;
    @Override
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        AppUser user =appUserRepo.findByUsername(username);
        if (user == null){
            log.error("User not found in the database");
            throw new UsernameNotFoundException("User not found in the databse");
        }else {
            log.info("User found in the database: {}",username);
        }
        Collection<SimpleGrantedAuthority> authorities = new ArrayList<>();
        user.getRoles().forEach(role -> {
            authorities.add(new SimpleGrantedAuthority(role.getName()));
        });
        return new org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User(user.getUsername(), user.getPassword(), authorities);
    }

    @Override
    public AppUser saveUser(AppUser user) {
        log.info("Saving new user {} to the database",user.getName());
        user.setPassword(passwordEncoder.encode(user.getPassword()));
        return appUserRepo.save(user);
    }

    @Override
    public Role saveRole(Role role) {
        log.info("Saving new role {} to the database",role.getName());
        return roleRepo.save(role);
    }

    @Override
    public void addRoleToUser(String username, String roleName) {
        log.info("Adding role {} to user {}",roleName,username );

        //real life could be good, or must be good, to do validation of below
        AppUser user = appUserRepo.findByUsername(username);
        Role role = roleRepo.findByName(roleName);
        user.getRoles().add(role);
    }

    @Override
    public AppUser getUser(String username) {
        log.info("Fetching user {}",username );
        return appUserRepo.findByUsername(username);
    }

    @Override
    public List<AppUser> getUsers() {
        log.info("Fetching all users");
        return appUserRepo.findAll();
    }


}

Edit2: added CustomAuthenticationFilter.java code

CustomAuthenticationFilter.java

package com.tito.userservice.filter;


import com.auth0.jwt.JWT;
import com.auth0.jwt.algorithms.Algorithm;
import com.tito.userservice.domain.AppUser;
import lombok.RequiredArgsConstructor;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.security.core.AuthenticationException;
import org.springframework.security.core.GrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;

import java.util.Date;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;


@Slf4j
public class CustomAuthenticationFilter extends UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter {


    private final AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    public CustomAuthenticationFilter(AuthenticationManager authenticationManager){
        this.authenticationManager = authenticationManager;
    }
    @Override
    public Authentication attemptAuthentication(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws AuthenticationException {
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String password = request.getParameter("password");
        log.info("Username is: {}", username); log.info("Password is: {}",password);
        UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authenticationToken = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(username,password);
        return  authenticationManager.authenticate(authenticationToken);
    }

    @Override
    protected void successfulAuthentication(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, FilterChain chain, Authentication authentication) throws IOException, ServletException {
        User user = (User)authentication.getPrincipal();
        Algorithm algorithm = Algorithm.HMAC256("secret".getBytes()); //not for use in production, need to pass as encrypted and then decrypt here
        String access_token = JWT.create()
                .withSubject(user.getUsername())
                .withExpiresAt(new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() +10*60*1000))
                .withIssuer(request.getRequestURL().toString())
                .withClaim("roles",user.getAuthorities().stream().map(GrantedAuthority::getAuthority).collect(Collectors.toList()))
                .sign(algorithm);
        String refresh_token = JWT.create()
                .withSubject(user.getUsername())
                .withExpiresAt(new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() +30*60*1000))
                .withIssuer(request.getRequestURL().toString())
                .sign(algorithm);
        response.setHeader("access_token",access_token);
        response.setHeader("refresh_token",refresh_token);
    }
}

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Answer

Judging by the stacktrace I assume your CustomAuthenticationFilter calls AuthenticationManager.authenticate() method on a UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken object. That, by default, calls DaoAuthenticationProvider, which is created with a DelegatingPasswordEncoder, containing 11 password encoders, and which is trying to match passwords with this encoder (not your BCryptPasswordEncoder bean).

This DelegatingPasswordEncoder tries to match stored password, retrieved from your UserDetailsService, and it assumes your password is stored with a key (prefix), like this:

{bcrypt}encodedPassword

You’ve registered a bean of type BCryptPasswordEncoder and you’re encoding your password with it, so passwords are stored without {bcrypt} prefix (just the encoded password is stored), and when calling AuthenticationManager.authenticate() mentioned DelegatingPasswordEncoder sees null prefix and cannot find the corresponding PasswordEncoder in a map – that’s what the error message is about.

So you can define a PasswordEncoder bean as a DelegatingPasswordEncoder, which, by default, uses BCryptPasswordEncoder to encode passwords.

Like this:

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@RequiredArgsConstructor
public class SecurityConfiguration {

    private final AuthenticationManagerBuilder authManagerBuilder;

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder encoder() {
        return PasswordEncoderFactories.createDelegatingPasswordEncoder();
    }
}

That way stored passwords will have {prefix} and DaoAuthenticationProvider will be able to match passwords. Also I advise to remove the BCryptPasswordEncoder field from your SecurityConfiguration class – you don’t need it there.

Also you can stuck with bean cycle dependencies, because your UserDetailsService injects PasswordEncoder, and PasswordEncoder is defined in a configuration, where UserDetailsService is injected, so you might also need refactoring.
For example, try to extract UserDetailsService:

@Service
@RequiredArgsConstructor
@Slf4j
public class UserDetailsServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService {

    private final AppUserRepo appUserRepo;

    @Override
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        // your logic here
        return new User(username, password, authorities);
    }
}

Or define a bean of this type UserDetailsService right in your SecurityConfiguration class:

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@RequiredArgsConstructor
public class SecurityConfiguration {

    private final AppUserRepo appUserRepo;
    // other fields

    @Bean
    public UserDetailsService userDetailsService() {
        return username -> {
            // your logic here
            return new User(username, password, authorities);        
        };
    }
}

Also you can:

  • instead of a custom filter create your own login endpoint, where you can check password matches using BCryptPasswordEncoder directly;
  • create your own AuthenticationProvider with a BCryptPasswordEncoder as a password encoder and use it in your CustomAuthenticationFilter to authenticate user.
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