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JUnit4 failed to load application context

I am trying to use JUnit4 for testing of my project. I have tried using JUnit5 but I cannot get this working either. I am trying to test my account controller at the momemnt. This is the full stack trace of the error I am receving

java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to load ApplicationContext
at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:124)
at org.springframework.test.context.support.DefaultTestContext.getApplicationContext(DefaultTestContext.java:83)
at org.springframework.test.context.web.ServletTestExecutionListener.setUpRequestContextIfNecessary(ServletTestExecutionListener.java:189)
at org.springframework.test.context.web.ServletTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(ServletTestExecutionListener.java:131)
at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:230)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:228)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:287)
at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:289)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:247)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:94)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:70)
at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363)
at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:191)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit4.runner.JUnit4TestReference.run(JUnit4TestReference.java:89)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:41)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:541)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:763)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:463)
at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:209)
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name 'entityManagerFactory' defined in class path resource [org/springframework/boot/autoconfigure/orm/jpa/HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration.class]: Invocation of init method failed; nested exception is org.hibernate.service.spi.ServiceException: Unable to create requested service [org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.env.spi.JdbcEnvironment]
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.initializeBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1628)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:555)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:483)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory$1.getObject(AbstractBeanFactory.java:306)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:230)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:302)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:197)
at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.getBean(AbstractApplicationContext.java:1081)
at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:856)
at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:542)
at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.refresh(SpringApplication.java:737)
at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.refreshContext(SpringApplication.java:370)
at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.run(SpringApplication.java:314)
at org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootContextLoader.loadContext(SpringBootContextLoader.java:120)
at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContextInternal(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:98)
at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:116)
... 25 more
Caused by: org.hibernate.service.spi.ServiceException: Unable to create requested service [org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.env.spi.JdbcEnvironment]
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.createService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:264)
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.initializeService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:228)
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.getService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:207)
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.internal.JdbcServicesImpl.configure(JdbcServicesImpl.java:51)
at org.hibernate.boot.registry.internal.StandardServiceRegistryImpl.configureService(StandardServiceRegistryImpl.java:94)
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.initializeService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:237)
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.getService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:207)
at org.hibernate.boot.model.process.spi.MetadataBuildingProcess.handleTypes(MetadataBuildingProcess.java:352)
at org.hibernate.boot.model.process.spi.MetadataBuildingProcess.complete(MetadataBuildingProcess.java:111)
at org.hibernate.jpa.boot.internal.EntityManagerFactoryBuilderImpl.metadata(EntityManagerFactoryBuilderImpl.java:847)
at org.hibernate.jpa.boot.internal.EntityManagerFactoryBuilderImpl.build(EntityManagerFactoryBuilderImpl.java:874)
at org.springframework.orm.jpa.vendor.SpringHibernateJpaPersistenceProvider.createContainerEntityManagerFactory(SpringHibernateJpaPersistenceProvider.java:60)
at org.springframework.orm.jpa.LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean.createNativeEntityManagerFactory(LocalContainerEntityManagerFactoryBean.java:353)
at org.springframework.orm.jpa.AbstractEntityManagerFactoryBean.buildNativeEntityManagerFactory(AbstractEntityManagerFactoryBean.java:373)
at org.springframework.orm.jpa.AbstractEntityManagerFactoryBean.afterPropertiesSet(AbstractEntityManagerFactoryBean.java:362)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.invokeInitMethods(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1687)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.initializeBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1624)
... 40 more
Caused by: org.hibernate.HibernateException: Access to DialectResolutionInfo cannot be null when 'hibernate.dialect' not set
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.dialect.internal.DialectFactoryImpl.determineDialect(DialectFactoryImpl.java:100)
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.dialect.internal.DialectFactoryImpl.buildDialect(DialectFactoryImpl.java:54)
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.env.internal.JdbcEnvironmentInitiator.initiateService(JdbcEnvironmentInitiator.java:137)
at org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.env.internal.JdbcEnvironmentInitiator.initiateService(JdbcEnvironmentInitiator.java:35)
at org.hibernate.boot.registry.internal.StandardServiceRegistryImpl.initiateService(StandardServiceRegistryImpl.java:88)
at org.hibernate.service.internal.AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.createService(AbstractServiceRegistryImpl.java:254)
... 56 more

Here is my build.gradle:

    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-data-jpa")
compile("javax.servlet:jstl:1.2")
compile group: 'javax.servlet', name: 'jstl', version: '1.2'
implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-security'
implementation 'org.springframework.security:spring-security-test'
compile group: 'org.springframework.security', name: 'spring-security-crypto', version: '5.4.2'
compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-mail")
compile group: 'mysql', name: 'mysql-connector-java', version: '8.0.11'
compile group: 'javax.servlet', name: 'jstl', version: '1.2'
runtime("mysql:mysql-connector-java")
compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-jdbc")
compile ("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web") 
compile group: 'com.qasymphony.qtest', name: 'qtest-sdk-java', version: '1.4.7'    
compile("org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-jasper")
compile group: 'org.glassfish.jaxb', name: 'jaxb-runtime', version: '2.3.3'
providedRuntime("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-tomcat")
providedRuntime 'org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-jasper'
compile group: 'tangrammer', name: 'java-net-http-client', version: '0.1.2'
implementation 'com.squareup.okhttp3:okhttp:3.14.6'
compile group: 'com.google.code.gson', name: 'gson', version: '2.8.5'
testImplementation('org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test') {
    exclude group: 'org.junit.vintage', module: 'junit-vintage-engine'
    
}
 implementation 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-data-jpa'
 compile group: 'org.springframework.boot', name: 'spring-boot-test-autoconfigure', version:  '1.5.1.RELEASE'
// https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.mockito/mockito-junit-jupiter
testImplementation group: 'org.mockito', name: 'mockito-junit-jupiter', version: '3.9.0' 

}

This is the version of spring boot I am using: springBootVersion = ‘1.5.0.RELEASE’ I know this is an old version however I have not got the time to update currently.

Here is the controller code.

@PostMapping("/newUser")
private String sign_up(@Valid @ModelAttribute User user, BindingResult result, Model model, WebRequest req) {
    if (result.hasErrors()) {
        model.addAttribute("errors", result.getAllErrors().get(0).getCode());
        return "HTML/Account/Sign_up";
    }
    else {
    DefPicture dp = dprepo.findOne(1);
    
    System.out.println(user.getPassword());
    user.setType(AccountTypes.user);
    user.setBanned(false);
    //System.out.println(pass);
    String crypt = pe.encode(user.getPassword());
    System.out.println(crypt);
    user.setPassword(crypt);
    user.setNumber_of_friends(0);
    user.setImage(dp.getImage());
    usrRepo.save(user);
    System.out.println("ACCOUNT $CREATED OUTCOME: SUCCESSFULL!");
    SimpleMailMessage msg = new SimpleMailMessage();
    msg.setTo(user.getEmail());

    msg.setSubject("Referee Analysis New User");
    msg.setText("Welcome " + user.getFullname() + ", n"
            + "thank you for signing up to the Referee Analysis Website. Use the link below to Confirm Registration! You need this to login!n"
            + "http://localhost:8080/confirmUser/"+user.getUser_id()
            + "n"
            + "Thanks The Referee Analysis Team");
    
    javaMailSender.send(msg);
    System.out.println("Sending Email to " + user.getEmail());
    
    Inbox i = new Inbox();
    i.setContent("Welcome " + user.getUsername() + " to the Referee Analysis Tool.");
    i.setDescription("Admin_Message");
    i.setFrom_user("ADMIN");
    i.setTitle("WELCOME MESSAGE!");
    i.setUser(user);
    irrepo.save(i);
    return "HTML/Account/Sign_in";

}}

And this is the test I am trying to run:

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
 import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.DataJpaTest;
 import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.AutoConfigureMockMvc;
 import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcTest;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.boot.test.mock.mockito.MockBean;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.context.web.WebAppConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;

 import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;

 import CO3102.hw2.Hw2Application;
import CO3102.hw2.controller.AccountController;
 import CO3102.hw2.domain.User;
 import CO3102.hw2.repositories.UserRepository;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.post;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration
@SpringBootTest(classes = Hw2Application.class)
public class Tests {

 @Autowired private MockMvc mvc;
 @Autowired private ObjectMapper mapper;

 private User user; 
 @Before
 public void setup() {
  user = new User(); 
}

@org.junit.Test
public void postTest() throws Exception{
String json = mapper.writeValueAsString(user);
mvc.perform(post("/newUser")
   .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
   .content(json)
   .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON))
   .andExpect(status().isOk());
 }

 }

I am quite new to JUnit so any help would be greatly appreicated. Also, if anyone could explain what this “failed to load application context” actually meant I would be grateful. Thank you very much

Answer

If read stacktrace more properly, you have this exception Caused by: org.hibernate.HibernateException: Access to DialectResolutionInfo cannot be null when 'hibernate.dialect' not set

Add hibernate dialect to your properties. Here is a question with the same exception.

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