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How to resolve Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type

I am getting the following error when I am trying to run my test case for a simple springboot application. Not sure what am I missing. Any help would be highly appreciated.

Controller.java

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/person")
public class Controller {

    private final PersonService personService;

    @Autowired
    public Controller(final PersonService personService) {
        this.personService = personService;
    }

    @PostMapping
    public ResponseEntity<PersonResponse> testPerson(@RequestBody PersonRequest personRequest) {
        return new ResponseEntity<>(personService.clearPastHistory((personRequest)), HttpStatus.OK);
    }
}

PersonService.java

public interface PersonService {
    PersonResponse clearPastHistory(final PersonRequest requestDTO);
}

PersonServiceImplementation.java

@Service
public class PersonServiceImplementation implements PersonService {
    @Override
    public PersonResponse clearPastHistory(PersonRequest requestDTO) {
        //business logic here
    }

ControllerTest.java

Here, the BASE_REQUEST is a json string which acts as an input from the user.

@WebMvcTest(Controller.class)
class ControllerTest {

    private static final MockHttpServletRequestBuilder REQUEST_BUILDER =
        request(HttpMethod.POST, "/person")
            .header(CONTENT_TYPE, APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)
            .accept(APPLICATION_JSON);

    @Autowired
    private MockMvc mockMvc;

    @Test
    void callCorrectEndpoint() throws Exception {
        mockMvc.perform(REQUEST_BUILDER.content(BASE_REQUEST))
            .andExpect(status().isOk());
    }

Exception:

java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to load ApplicationContext

    at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:132)
    at org.springframework.test.context.support.DefaultTestContext.getApplicationContext(DefaultTestContext.java:124)
    at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:118)
    at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:83)
    at org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:43)
    at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:244)
    at org.springframework.test.context.junit.jupiter.SpringExtension.postProcessTestInstance(SpringExtension.java:138)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.lambda$invokeTestInstancePostProcessors$6(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:350)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.executeAndMaskThrowable(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:355)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.lambda$invokeTestInstancePostProcessors$7(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:350)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$3$1.accept(ReferencePipeline.java:195)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$2$1.accept(ReferencePipeline.java:177)
    at java.base/java.util.ArrayList$ArrayListSpliterator.forEachRemaining(ArrayList.java:1654)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.copyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:484)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.wrapAndCopyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:474)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.StreamSpliterators$WrappingSpliterator.forEachRemaining(StreamSpliterators.java:312)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.Streams$ConcatSpliterator.forEachRemaining(Streams.java:735)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.Streams$ConcatSpliterator.forEachRemaining(Streams.java:734)
    at java.base/java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$Head.forEach(ReferencePipeline.java:658)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.invokeTestInstancePostProcessors(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:349)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.lambda$instantiateAndPostProcessTestInstance$4(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:270)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.instantiateAndPostProcessTestInstance(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:269)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.lambda$testInstancesProvider$2(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:259)
    at java.base/java.util.Optional.orElseGet(Optional.java:369)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.ClassBasedTestDescriptor.lambda$testInstancesProvider$3(ClassBasedTestDescriptor.java:258)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.execution.TestInstancesProvider.getTestInstances(TestInstancesProvider.java:31)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.TestMethodTestDescriptor.lambda$prepare$0(TestMethodTestDescriptor.java:101)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.TestMethodTestDescriptor.prepare(TestMethodTestDescriptor.java:100)
    at org.junit.jupiter.engine.descriptor.TestMethodTestDescriptor.prepare(TestMethodTestDescriptor.java:65)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$prepare$1(NodeTestTask.java:111)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.prepare(NodeTestTask.java:111)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.execute(NodeTestTask.java:79)
    at java.base/java.util.ArrayList.forEach(ArrayList.java:1540)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.invokeAll(SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.java:38)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$5(NodeTestTask.java:143)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$7(NodeTestTask.java:129)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.Node.around(Node.java:137)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$8(NodeTestTask.java:127)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.executeRecursively(NodeTestTask.java:126)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.execute(NodeTestTask.java:84)
    at java.base/java.util.ArrayList.forEach(ArrayList.java:1540)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.invokeAll(SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.java:38)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$5(NodeTestTask.java:143)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$7(NodeTestTask.java:129)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.Node.around(Node.java:137)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.lambda$executeRecursively$8(NodeTestTask.java:127)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.ThrowableCollector.execute(ThrowableCollector.java:73)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.executeRecursively(NodeTestTask.java:126)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.NodeTestTask.execute(NodeTestTask.java:84)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.submit(SameThreadHierarchicalTestExecutorService.java:32)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.HierarchicalTestExecutor.execute(HierarchicalTestExecutor.java:57)
    at org.junit.platform.engine.support.hierarchical.HierarchicalTestEngine.execute(HierarchicalTestEngine.java:51)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.EngineExecutionOrchestrator.execute(EngineExecutionOrchestrator.java:108)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.EngineExecutionOrchestrator.execute(EngineExecutionOrchestrator.java:88)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.EngineExecutionOrchestrator.lambda$execute$0(EngineExecutionOrchestrator.java:54)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.EngineExecutionOrchestrator.withInterceptedStreams(EngineExecutionOrchestrator.java:67)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.EngineExecutionOrchestrator.execute(EngineExecutionOrchestrator.java:52)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:96)
    at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:75)
    at com.intellij.junit5.JUnit5IdeaTestRunner.startRunnerWithArgs(JUnit5IdeaTestRunner.java:71)
    at com.intellij.rt.junit.IdeaTestRunner$Repeater.startRunnerWithArgs(IdeaTestRunner.java:33)
    at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.prepareStreamsAndStart(JUnitStarter.java:220)
    at com.intellij.rt.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:53)
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.UnsatisfiedDependencyException: Error creating bean with name 'controller' defined in file [/Users/user/Desktop/Dummy/target/classes/com/javabrains/testing/Controller.class]: Unsatisfied dependency expressed through constructor parameter 0; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'com.javabrains.testing.service.PersonService' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {}
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.ConstructorResolver.createArgumentArray(ConstructorResolver.java:800)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.ConstructorResolver.autowireConstructor(ConstructorResolver.java:229)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.autowireConstructor(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1354)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBeanInstance(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1204)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.doCreateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:564)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:524)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.lambda$doGetBean$0(AbstractBeanFactory.java:335)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.getSingleton(DefaultSingletonBeanRegistry.java:234)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.doGetBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:333)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.getBean(AbstractBeanFactory.java:208)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.preInstantiateSingletons(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:944)
    at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.finishBeanFactoryInitialization(AbstractApplicationContext.java:918)
    at org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext.refresh(AbstractApplicationContext.java:583)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.refresh(SpringApplication.java:782)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.refresh(SpringApplication.java:774)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.refreshContext(SpringApplication.java:439)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.run(SpringApplication.java:339)
    at org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootContextLoader.loadContext(SpringBootContextLoader.java:123)
    at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContextInternal(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:99)
    at org.springframework.test.context.cache.DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.loadContext(DefaultCacheAwareContextLoaderDelegate.java:124)
    ... 68 more
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'com.javabrains.testing.service.PersonService' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {}
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoMatchingBeanFound(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1790)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1346)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1300)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.ConstructorResolver.resolveAutowiredArgument(ConstructorResolver.java:887)
    at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.ConstructorResolver.createArgumentArray(ConstructorResolver.java:791)
    ... 87 more

Answer

Please try to include the following annotations on top of the test class.

@SpringBootTest
@AutoConfigureMockMvc
@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)

This will load the full context.

Apart from this Controller class also uses the PersonService class, hence that also needs to be mocked. and corresponding calls needs to be set with expected values.

  @MockBean
  private PersonService personService;

when(personService.clearPastHistory(request)).thenReturn(<PersonResponse>);